Daf Yomi may be relatively new, but the idea of regularly reviewing a major Jewish work on a fixed cycle dates back at least 450 years to the publication of the Shulchan Aruch. In his introduction, Rav Yosef Karo writes that he has divided the text into thirty sections to facilitate regular review. By reviewing one section a day, one can complete all of halacha once a month.
I've never seen a modern edition of Shulchan Aruch with those divisions, and I'm curious to know what happened to them. Even without the Rama and later commentators, 30 days seems lightning fast to review the Shulchan Aruch, even for someone (unlike me) who's studied it all before.
The modern Halacha Yomis cycle takes four years, and that's just for Orach Chayim, the first of the four volumes of Shulchan Aruch. To get through it in a month one would have to cover not three halachot a day, but 144! And that's before even opening Yoreh Deah.